Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Moral Truth

Moral Truth What is Moral truth? In Sam Harris’ book â€Å"The Moral Landscape†, he clarifies his thoughts on moral truth. He clarifies that ethical truth is so mind boggling in view of individual impulse, and social impact. He clarifies his thoughts of good truth through science, objective and emotional, and accord and cognizance. With these thoughts Harris can characterize moral truth to his best capacity, since it is such a troublesome subject to comprehend. In the part on moral truth, Harris clarifies moral truth with the utilization of science.He states in the book â€Å"science can, in Principe, help us comprehend what we ought to do, and should need and, in this manner, what others ought to do and need so as to live the most ideal lives. â€Å"In different words, He accepts that like science, there are good and bad responses to moral truth. He at that point clarifies that science should assist us with responding to moral inquiries. His other thought is that sci ence depends on our best supposition of what it is and moral truth is the equivalent. Moral truth is additionally simply our best speculation of what is correct and wrong.Harris is attempting to state that ethical truth, similar to science, can have a system wherein we accept is right, however can generally change. Harris clarifies in the book that the terms â€Å"objective† and â€Å"subjective† are totally different. Target implies that an individual is utilizing to inclination when they are saying something. He utilizes the case of having a ringing in his ear. This is an abstract proclamation, in any case, is objective since he isn't lying. From this thought of the ringing in the ear, he clarifies this is a way that we can examine depression.We can decide mind states with reference, to person’s emotional considerations. At long last in the section, he investigates the thoughts of accord and awareness. He clarifies that logical agreement as logical contention that work should be finished. For instance, â€Å"moral discussion demonstrates that there can be nothing of the sort as good truth while moral agreement shows just that individuals frequently harbor the equivalent biases† this thought is fundamentally saying that regularly individuals will think uniquely in contrast to other people and this makes predisposition among people.Harris clarifies that fact has nothing to do with moral accord, on the grounds that regularly one individual can be correct, while a group isn't right. Harris at that point proceeds to clarify his thoughts on cognizance. He clarifies that individuals have moral truth since they are cognizant animals. His comprehension of a cognizant being is that â€Å"consciousness is just clear area of significant worth. † All taking all things together, Harris accepts that ethical truth is like science since it must be supported up by proof and frequently comprises of instructed guesses.He clarifies that objecti ve and abstract are totally different, in any case; can regularly be utilized in similar ways. At long last, agreement and cognizance plot the premise of good truth, in light of the fact that without them moral truth would not exist as per Harris. He accepts that accord implies that no one but people can have a similar predisposition, and cognizance shows that solitary individuals with awareness can have moral truth.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Riordan Manufacturing

Riordan Manufacturing Riordan PAGE * MERGEFORMAT 1Riordan ManufacturingJ.Enriquez, R.Graves, and G.SweattMGT/3603/15/11Vicki BauerAbstractThis paper will sum up goals, targets, and projects recognized as significant for Riordan Manufacturing to improve its supportability rehearses. Pertinent advancements, techniques, items, and practices will be distinguished. At that point, a money saving advantage investigation will be performed on the proposed arrangements. At last, the three prescribed procedures that Riordan Manufacturing should actualize will be identified.Riordan ManufacturingRiordan Manufacturing might want to utilize maintainability activities. Since accounts are critical to the accomplishment of the organization, however the solidness of every activity, it is essential to think about the expense of the execution against the potential prizes. There are a few procedures that will permit Riordan to diminish vitality reliance, all the more appropriately discard squander, and decrease their general a dverse effect on the earth while setting aside cash in the process.Objectives and ProgramsRiordan Manufacturing would profit intensely from executing manageability initiatives.Riordan Mansion, FlagstaffThis was made to answer the administration demand logged by Hugh McCauley, COO of Riordan. The orders of this administration demand were additionally point by point by Maria Trinh, CIO of Riordan. In a notice dated September 10, 2004, she stated:The essential objectives of the venture are:* Document current environment* Forecast of business innovation needs in next five years* Recommendations on frameworks incorporation, acquisitions and consolidationsBased on these objectives, the Operations office has distinguished zones of Riordan's business that will yield a huge cost advantage whenever changed and improved:* insufficient data being shared between clients, deals, account, producing, and management.* Customers can't put arranges direct without human collaboration at Riordan's workp laces. Clients can't organization during non-business hours at this time.* No continuous stock framework. Zero ability to see into completed item and crude material stock...

Thursday, August 20, 2020

Psychosis in Teens Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Coping

Psychosis in Teens Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Coping Depression Childhood Depression Print An Overview of Psychosis in Teens How to Spot the Signs of Psychosis in Adolescents By Amy Morin, LCSW facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our editorial policy Amy Morin, LCSW Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Carly Snyder, MD on February 13, 2020 facebook twitter linkedin Carly Snyder, MD is a reproductive and perinatal psychiatrist who combines traditional psychiatry with integrative medicine-based treatments.   Learn about our Medical Review Board Carly Snyder, MD on February 13, 2020 aldomurillo / E / Getty Images More in Depression Childhood Depression Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Types Suicide In This Article Table of Contents Expand Symptoms Causes and Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatment   Coping View All Back To Top Teens can experience all forms of mental illness, including psychosis. However, as with the signs of depression and other forms of mental illness in adolescence, the key indicators seen in adults may be missed or simply attributed to the normal stress of teenage development. Psychosis involves a disruption to a person’s thoughts and perceptions that make it difficult for them to distinguish between what is real and what isn’t. However, its important to know upfront that psychosis is a symptom rather than a diagnosis. The severity of psychosis varies. One person may have mild impairment while another struggles with activities of daily living due to their symptoms. Psychosis generally stems from various psychiatric disorders, although it may also appear in the course of certain medical and neurological conditions. Doctors need to rule out these causes before a psychiatric diagnosis is made.   Early recognition and treatment can slow, stop, or in some cases even reverse the effects of psychosis. Parents need to be informed about what to look for as well as where to turn for help. Common Mental Health Issues in Teens Symptoms Unfortunately, most adults with psychosis say their parents didn’t recognize the warning signs when they were younger. According to a survey conducted by the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), only 18.2% of people with psychosis said their parents saw symptoms of mental illness and intervened.?? Many parents may rely on their childs doctor to identify signs of mental illness or psychosis. However, according to NAMI, only 4.5% of people with psychosis report that medical professionals recognized their symptoms.?? Teens with psychosis start to lose touch with certain aspects of reality. Symptoms may appear for a while and then disappear. Parents, caregivers, and other adults in a teens life (such as teachers and coaches) may dismiss the behaviors as a phase or typical teenage mood swings. When symptoms come and go, they may assume a teen is doing fine during periods when symptoms are not present. The early warning signs of psychosis may be similar to the signs of depression or another mental illness, including: Mood swingsUnusual movementsCold, detached demeanorInability to express emotionsLoss of interest in usual activitiesDifficulty maintaining relationshipsNot keeping up with personal hygieneProblems at school (social and/or academic) It’s not uncommon for teens to attempt to hide or disguise their symptoms for as long as possible. A teen who is experiencing psychosis is likely to feel confused, embarrassed, and even afraid. Signs of psychosis vary from person to person. Its important to get a gauge of your teens well-being and closely monitor for changes in their mood or behavior that go beyond the normal ups and downs of adolescence. Parents should also know that sudden psychosis, as in the case of a brief psychotic disorder, is relatively unusual. By contrast, most people with schizophrenia, for example, exhibit signs of psychosis for months, if not years, before they are diagnosed. Hallucinations Hallucinations are a common symptom of psychosis and can affect any of the senses including sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. Auditory hallucinations are the most common type of hallucination. A teen may hear voices that tell them what to do or warn them of danger. Some teens report the voice seems to come from inside their brain, while others feel as though they’re hearing voices around them from people who do not exist. For some, the voices simply sound like background noise. Visual hallucinations involve seeing things that aren’t really there. A teen may see people or objects that no one else sees. These hallucinations can run the gamut in terms of content and intensity. Some hallucinations are simply confusing (a wall seems to change color, or an object appears in an unexpected place), but they can also be intensely distressing (such as seeing blood on the floor or the face of a stranger in the mirror). Olfactory hallucinations involve smells. A person may detect odors that aren’t really present, such as perfume, rotten eggs, or garbage. Some olfactory hallucinations come and go, while others may be present all the time. Teens with psychosis may also experience phantom physical sensations. People with tactile hallucinations can feel like something is crawling on or under their skin or may turn around thinking that someone has tapped them on the shoulder when no one is there. Overview of Hallucinations Delusions Teens who experience delusions have fixed false beliefs that are inconsistent with their culture. For example, a teen may believe that the government is controlling their behavior through the TV or become convinced someone is poisoning them. Even when there is no evidence in support of these beliefs, teens experiencing psychosis will maintain their delusions. While it can be frustrating, you cant talk to someone who is experiencing delusions into thinking differently or giving up a delusion simply by stating that it is untrue. Disordered Thinking At times, teens with psychosis may exhibit disorganized speech. They may become easily confused during a conversation. Their sentences may not make sense and their speech may contain meaningless words. The disordered thinking that results from psychosis can affect focus, concentration, and make teens feel uneasy relating to others. Causes and Risk Factors The exact cause of psychosis is not known, but researchers suspect there are several contributing factors, such as genetics. For example, a teen who has a sibling with schizophrenia may carry a genetic predisposition for psychosis. Teens who have a close relative (like a parent or sibling) who has experienced psychosis are at a higher risk for developing it themselves. Psychosis as a Symptom of Psychiatric Disorder Certain psychiatric disorders may present with psychosis including: Schizophrenia: Teens with schizophrenia exhibit behavioral changes that may be intense. They may have hallucinations or delusions. Symptoms often affect their education and their relationships.Schizoaffective disorder: A person with schizoaffective disorder has a combination of prominent mood symptoms typical in bipolar disorder or depression along with psychotic features of schizophrenia.Schizophreniform disorder: In schizophreniform disorder, symptoms of schizophrenia are of limited durationâ€"typically between one to six months.Brief psychotic disorder: A person may experience a sudden bout of psychosis, typically in relation to a stressful life event, such as the loss of a loved one. In these cases, symptoms usually disappear in less than a month.Substance-induced psychotic disorder: Teens with serious substance use problems may experience hallucinations or delusions as a result of their substance use.Mood disorders: Sometimes psychosis occurs in certain presentations of major de pression and bipolar disorder.Psychotic disorder due to medical condition: In some cases, psychosis may be caused by an underlying condition such as a brain tumor or head injury. Risk Factors Researchers have also investigated potential environmental risk factors that may interact with and trigger a genetic vulnerability for psychosis,?? such as: Fetal hypoxia: Fetal hypoxia occurs when the oxygen supply to a developing fetus is disrupted. Its been proposed that the resulting changes to the fetal brain may affect later predisposition for schizophrenia.?? Fetal hypoxia may be caused by a variety of factors, such as bleeding during pregnancy or an emergency cesarean section.Maternal infection: The child of a mother who experienced an infection during pregnancy may be at a higher risk of schizophrenia.??Paternal age: Several studies have linked a father’s age to an increased risk of schizophrenia. For each decade of a fathers life, the risk of schizophrenia in offspring increases 1.5 times.??Prenatal malnutrition. Historically, during periods of famine the rates of schizophrenia increase.?? A lack of key vitamins, such as B and D, has also been associated with higher rates of schizophrenia.Trauma: Adults with schizophrenia report higher rates of childhood trauma.??  Stressful family environment: Certain stressors that create a n unhealthy childhood environment have also been linked to the  later development of psychosis.?? Psychosis and Marijuana Use Studies have also demonstrated a link between teens who smoke marijuana and psychosis. In 2011, a team of researchers led by Rebecca Kuepper published the findings of their study in the British Journal of Medicine. After following nearly 2,000 teenagers over 10 years, the researchers found that teens who had smoked marijuana at least five times were twice as likely to develop psychosis compared to those who had never smoked pot.?? Another study found that smoking marijuana may cause symptoms of psychosis to appear earlier.??  Researchers found that marijuana smokers were likely to experience psychosis two years sooner than their non-marijuana smoking counterparts. Although there is not enough evidence to definitively conclude that marijuana causes psychosis, the studies thus far have indicated teens may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of marijuana. One reason for this is that researchers suspect marijuana could interfere with normal brain development. During adolescence, the emotional and reasoning centers of the brain are not yet fully formed and need to continue to make new connections. Research has suggested that when teens use marijuana, it may increase their vulnerability to psychosis through this mechanism. What to Do If Your Teen Is Showing Signs of Mental Illness Diagnosis Psychosis is a symptom of a diagnosable condition rather than being one in and of itself.?? However, doctors and mental health professionals can evaluate a person’s feelings and behaviors to see if they are experiencing psychosis.   Establishing whether or not someone is experiencing psychosis, as well as figuring out what has caused the symptom, can help providers arrive at a diagnosis.   The screening tools used for psychosis are usually questionnaires. The guidelines and criteria for diagnosing specific conditions and disorders that cause psychosis are found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders  (DSM-5). A doctor or mental health professional (such as a psychiatrist) will usually begin by asking questions related to a person’s symptoms. Their questions might be about the content of the person’s thoughts, when the thoughts began, how long they have been happening, and whether they are constant or come and go.   A person experiencing psychosis may not be aware of a specific trigger, but if there was an event or incident that precipitated the symptom, it can help a provider reach an accurate diagnosis. While they are asking questions, as well as at other times throughout the evaluation, a provider will also observe a person’s behavior, demeanor, and appearance for any clues that could indicate a particular diagnosis.   Providers will also want to know what a person’s day-to-day life is like and in what ways it has been affected by their symptoms. For example, a provider will want to know if the person is having trouble with self-care such as taking a shower, cleaning the house, doing laundry, going to the store for groceries, and making sure bills get paid on time.   If a person is unable to answer these questions, providers may turn to family members who can provide insight and information.   Knowing about a person’s social activities and whether they can go to school or work is helpful for making a diagnosis. It can also help to know whether a person has been able to maintain close relationships with family and friends. The Importance of Social Relationships Once a provider has gathered information about a person’s psychosis, they can compare it to the various diagnostic criteria for disorders that cause the symptom, as well as look for other potential explanations.   For example, psychosis may be brought on by certain medications or substances but will go away as soon as the drug is stopped.?? In some cases, a doctor might want to order other tests to determine a cause for psychosis. For example, a blood or urine test to check for illicit drugs or an MRI of the brain to look for lesions or tumors.   If they are unsure of a diagnosis, a provider may refer a person with psychosis to a specialist for a more thorough evaluation or recommend admission to an inpatient psychiatric facility. Difference Between Provisional and Differential Diagnoses Treatment   There isn’t a cure for psychosis, but there are treatments. Parents, educators, and medical professionals should know that the sooner a teen with psychosis gets help, the better the outcome is likely to be. Family Intervention Family intervention is key for teens with psychosis. Studies show that parental participation can be highly protective against relapse.?? Interventions that are family-focused may include psychoeducation, communication skills training, and problem-solving therapy. A supportive home environment and learning how to assist a teen’s efforts are instrumental to recovery. Its also helpful for parents to learn how to adjust rules and expectations at home. For example, teens with psychosis may not be able to babysit younger siblings or stay home alone for long periods of time. Parents of teens with psychosis often experience guilt and anxiety. Siblings will also have their own unique reactions to the situation, which may range from anger to confusion and fear. Family-based therapy is essential for ensuring everyones emotional needs are addressed. Medication Some teens with psychosis may benefit from medication. Antipsychotic medication can help balance certain brain chemicals that contribute to hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. Antipsychotics come in two classes: typical and atypical, the former representing an older class of medications that are less frequently prescribed. While they are not without side effects, atypical antipsychotics are generally less likely to cause the serious side effects (such as tardive dyskinesia) that are associated with typical antipsychotics. Examples of typical and atypical antipsychotic medications include: Haldol (haloperidol)Abilify (aripiprazole)Zyprexa (olanzapine)Seroquel (quetiapine)Risperdal (risperidone)Trilafon  (perphenazine)Thorazine  (chlorpromazine) Using Atypical Antipsychotics Therapy Individual therapy is an important part of a teen’s treatment for psychosis. There are many different options for psychotherapy, which may be used in conjunction with medications. One example is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Together with a trained mental health professional, CBT can help teens learn to handle stress in a healthy way as well as cope with the unique and the challenges that stem from psychosis. Other forms of therapy that may be used include: Group therapyAnimal-assisted therapy  (AAT)Electroconvulsive therapy  (ECT)Deep brain stimulation therapy (DBT) Top 10 Reasons Teens Get Therapy Education Teens with psychosis, as well as their families, need to be educated about their illness. A person with psychosis who understands their symptoms will be better equipped to  cope with them. Life skills training is also a crucial component of treatment. Teens learning to live with a mental illness often benefit from social skills training, which helps them learn to interact with peers in a socially appropriate manner. They can also develop the life skills they need to effectively carry out their daily activities, such as bathing and preparing meals. Coping If you’re caring for a teen who is experiencing psychosis, you may feel confused, frightened, and overwhelmed. You may even experience a sense of grief. These emotions are normal and common in caregivers but can be especially intense for those caring for someone with psychosis.?? Caregiving can be incredibly stressful, but you should know that you dont have to go through it alone. There are resources, support, and coping strategies that can help. As you support and reassure your teen (as well as keep them safe), you need a wide network you can reach out to for comfort, advice, and resources. You will likely work closely with the medical and mental health providers overseeing your teen’s care, but they can also be excellent sources of information and support for you and your family.   There are also support groups specifically for caregivers, both in-person and online, which you may find helpful. Sometimes, just being around others who understand what you’re going through is enough to validate your feelings and empower you.   If your teen is still attending school, you may find it useful to reach out to teachers, principals, and administrators. There may be programs in place to support teens who need extra help or supervision in school, which may include counseling that you and your family could take part in.   Recognizing Caregiver Burnout You may decide that you would like to see a therapist on your own. Working with a mental health professional can provide you with the time and space to express your concerns and frustrations without judgment. You can also learn valuable coping skills and techniques for managing stress that will prepare you to care and advocate for your own needs as well as your teen’s. If your family needs more help, look to your community, religious or spiritual center, and local social work offices. Services such as respite care may be available to you. Even something as simple as having a friend or neighbor assist with groceries, laundry, or transporting your kids to school can be a big help. A Word From Verywell If your teen is showing signs of psychosis, youll need to seek professional help. You can start by bringing up your concerns with your teens doctor, though they will need to be referred to a mental health professional (such as a psychiatrist) who can give your teen a proper evaluation. If your teen is in immediate danger, such as threatening to harm themselves or someone else, call 911 or go to the emergency room. Talk to your teen’s doctor about your concerns. They can refer your teen to a mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist, who can perform an evaluation and begin to make a plan for treatment. What Parents Need to Know About Mental Illness in Teens

Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Importance Of Robust Vocabulary Instruction On Children

Introduction: This study had more than one purpose. The first purpose was to observe the outcomes of robust vocabulary instruction on children who were determined to have below average vocabulary skills. The children’s level of vocabulary was determined by a standardized test of vocabulary. The second purpose was to observe how African American children retain novel vocabulary words and what type of book influences that. The literature review for this study covers robust vocabulary instruction and the role of storybooks in vocabulary development. Beck, Perfetti, and McKeown (1982) acknowledged robust vocabulary instruction as an effective way for children to learn meanings of words and improve their understanding of what they are reading (as cited in Lovelace, 2009, p. 169). Using robust vocabulary instruction allows children to understand how words are similar and different from other words or ideas. Beck et al. (1982) conducted a study using fourth-grade students from low so cioeconomic status to determine the outcome of using robust vocabulary instruction compared with regular reading and language arts activities (as cited in Lovelace, 2009, p 169). There have been a few studies after that compare the effects of robust vocabulary instruction on different parts of vocabulary acquisition and understanding. All of the previous studies specifically on robust vocabulary instruction found that it is beneficial gaining knowledge of vocabulary words in students of low SES.Show MoreRelatedWhat And Who Were The Sources For The Information That You Gathered?1610 Words   |  7 Pagesto analyze my student writing to determine how well they were applying previously taught vocabulary words to write. I gathered information from notes that recorded the conversations that took place at these meetings regarding my students’ limited vocabulary use in their writing. I gathered information from observational rubrics I used to score students’ application of n ewly learned content related vocabulary while observing and listening to my student s accountable talk conversations and discussionsRead MoreEffective Reading Instruction Provides Children With The Key Skills And Strategies1903 Words   |  8 PagesEffective reading instruction provides children with the key skills and strategies they require. Children also depend upon the opportunity to read a range of interesting text to apply their knowledge. For children to become competent readers educators must explicitly and systematically teach the required skills and strategies. To build children’s confidence in these skills and strategies educators need to provide plenty of opportunity for children to read independently texts that interest them. EffectiveRead MoreMission Statement For Wrnite Brnin World810 Words   |  4 Pagesan in-depth, narrative and creative writing process, students (K-12) become confident writers of thoughtfully written childrens books. We offer robust, inno vative curricula and high-quality materials to support a process in which students collaborate and work independently to become authors crafting narratives for a specific audience of readers; children. Students receive printed copies of their original storybooks and are recognized at school-planned culminating events. WRiTE BRAiN provides virtualRead MorePK Curriculum: Education and Curriculum Constructivism2675 Words   |  11 Pagesmaximize learning, one cannot underestimate two things: learning opportunities and the environment surrounding the learning activity. Learning opportunities must be interesting, meaningful, and purposeful for learners particularly children. Education prepares children for life, not for any specific social institution. Since each person is born with innate gifts that are unique to their own personality, the perceptive educator must nurture those gifts and help the child discover their own individualRead MoreScience as a Discipline: Notes1889 Words   |  8 Pagesthat students derive and extrapolate, and the integration is the synthesis of current and past knowledge, the so-called so what moment (Blaustein, 2002) Science Integration Research abounds with the argument that the active and robust study of science helps children develop logical thinking, language proficiency, reading comprehension, and analytical skills. In addition, reading and writing about science topics helps develop and reinforce desired science concepts (Topping, 2002) Language Literacy/ScienceRead MoreEarly Childhood Literacy Proposal3552 Words   |  15 Pagesin components of literacy such as phonological awareness, vocabulary and language knowledge, alphabet and sound recognition, print and text comprehension as well as the use of sound instructional practices and strategies among teachers will promote the optimal level of success in early literacy and beyond. Introduction Early childhood literacy is an emphatic, essential, and extensive branch of education that seeks to equip young children with the optimal skills that will cause them to emerge inRead MoreParental Involvement And Collaboration Of A Child s Educational Involvement2425 Words   |  10 Pagescharacteristics and inadequacies throughout the education process. â€Æ' Background Parents and schools, separately or together, represent noteworthy influences on the impending sources of support for children’s learning and development. Children develop within multiple contexts, and development and learning are optimal when effective networks and permanencies among these systems are created. Methods for creating connections are exhibited in programs stimulating family involvement andRead MoreIntegration Of Creative Movement And Dance Into The General Education Classroom4523 Words   |  19 PagesIntegration of Creative Movement and Dance into the General Education Classroom: A Robust Approach Jessica Stabler Lesley University Graduate School of Education EARARTS Professor May 16, 2017 INTEGRATION OF CREATIVE MOVEMENT 2 Introduction Dance and creative movement in the classroom are robust teaching tools that ensure students retain and think critically about academic content. â€Å"Creative dance has the potential to open up new worlds for†¦students† (Gilbert p. 3). Incorporating movementRead MoreExploring Young People s Literacy Practices Across Corporate And User Produced Platforms6165 Words   |  25 Pagesdisperse information: it provides a set of roles and goals which readers can assume as they enact aspects of the story through their everyday life. We might see this performative dimension at play with the release of action figures which encourage children to construct their own stories about the fictional characters or costumes and role playing games which invite us to immerse ourselves in the world of the fiction. Thus, the concept of transmedia draws our focus, not just to the media and technologyRead MoreIntroduction . Dance And Creative Movement In The Classroom4608 Words   |  19 PagesIntroduction Dance and creative movement in the classroom are robust teaching tools that ensure students retain and think critically about academic content. â€Å"Creative dance has the potential to open up new worlds for†¦students† (Gilbert p. 3). Incorporating movement into the classroom is simple. First, movement comes naturally to every child born in every culture, according to Jennings (2017). Jennings stated that children naturally move when they hear movement and rhythm. As a mother, I felt

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Study On The Financial Sources For Smes - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3636 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? Introduction SMEs are those industries, which are unquoted in a stock exchange, run by few individuals or a type of family businesses having connection with shareholders. According to South West Venture Fund, SME is a company or business that has less than 250 employees and has an annual turnover not exceeding approximately  £24 million. SME sector is very large in UK economy. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Study On The Financial Sources For Smes" essay for you Create order There are 3.7 million businesses in UK according to the survey conducted in 2003 by Department of Trade and Industries (DTI) and 99% of those are small and medium sized and survey also suggested that UK gains 50% of its total turnover from SME sector. On the other hand according to the report of HM Treasury 2008 there are 4.7 million SMEs in the UK and are responsible for more than 52 per cent of total UK business turnover. Therefore it can be seen that SMEs have an important role to play to drive UK growth and the average productivity of SMEs has increased in the last ten years. On the other hand SMEs are struggling in accessing to finance whereas there are many sources of finance available in UK. The main problem with SMEs to obtain finance is that of uncertainty. Investors most of the time donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t rely on SMEs in investing because SMEs does not have a long track record of success. Banks are quite nerves of SMEs to investment because SMEs represent high credit ris k. The problem is, banks are not increasing the loan amount without increasing security given and most of the SME owners are unable to provide security. There are many SMEs without tangible assets to use as a security for all lenders. All the financial sources for SMEs are listed below with brief description. Business Angles à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Business angles are private individuals who invest their own assets in SME or start-up businesses. Business angles also share their personal business experience with other entrepreneurs. LBA (London Business Angles) provides great services to innovative starting-up businesses who seeks the capital more than  £100 k for their future growth. London Business Angle runs by Greater London Enterprise (GLE). The main reason behind investing by business angles is that they are very experienced and successful entrepreneurs and they not only provide finance they also train new business through sharing their experience. The fact on the other hand is only few companies can find business angles, LBA receive 1000 business plan and after the whole selection procedure only 42 business have been invited to invest with. Another group of business angles BBAA (British Business Angles Association) is also working to provide financial help to early stage businesses. Every year private individual or these business angles invest between  £800 million to  £1 billion in starting-up business and SMEs. Overdraft Financing Overdraft financing is another most popular way of accessing to finance for SMEs. In overdraft financing, payments are made from the current account of business when the amount exceeds the available balance. Through the overdraft facility business gets short-term funds whereas the amount which is loaned is repayable according to the bank demand. There are some benefits of overdraft facilities such as the borrowed amount can be changed within the limit and interest is only payable on the amount borrowed. The main disadvantages of overdrafts are, bank can ask to pay back the money very sooner than expected time, overdraft limit can be changed at any time by the bank, overdraft facility cannot be used if large amount is needed and the interest rate is higher than the bank loan. Some other factors must be considered when using overdraft facility to obtain finance. Such as the amount that is borrowed should not go beyond the given or agreed limit, interest also differs according to the amount borrowed and the interest rate is higher than the bank base rate , sometime bank can charge the overdraft fee and finally overdraft cannot be obtained for long term. One more difficulty for SMEs to obtain finance through overdraft is SMEs can be asked to provide some kind of security depending on the size of overdraft facility. Security may be of any type for an example it can be tangible fixed assets or personal guarantees given by company directors. Venture Capital Venture capital provides long-term, committed share capital, to help unquoted companies grow and succeed. If an entrepreneur is looking to start-up, expand, buy-into a business, buy-out a business in which he works, turnaround or revitalise a company, venture capital could help do this. Obtaining venture capital is substantially different from raising debt or a loan from a lender. Lenders have a legal right to interest on a loan and repayment of the capital, irrespective of the success or failure of a business . Venture capital is invested in exchange for an equity stake in the business. As a shareholder, the venture capitalists return is dependent on the growth and profitability of the business. This return is generally earned when the venture capitalist exits by selling its shareholding when the business is sold to another owner. Venture capital in the UK originated in the late 18th century, when entrepreneurs found wealthy individuals to back their projects on an ad hoc basis . This informal method of financing became an industry in the late 1970s and early 1980s when a number of venture capital firms were founded. There are now over 100 active venture capital firms in the UK, which provide several billion pounds each year to unquoted companies mostly located in the UK. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction It being any country, small and medium enterprises has become an integral part of it and provides remarkable contribution to its economy. SMEs play a pivotal role in job creation and in progress of country. Like UK, many countries now understand the importance of small business and started to diversify it for job creation and also for the long term development of the countryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s economy. . SMEs constitute the majority of economies around the world, these highly contribute in private sector and one of which seems to be growing in folds with time. According to the reports of Bank of England (2003), approximately 54% of the total value is added by small and medium firms in the UK. In fact, in some sectors SMEs have contributed more than larger firms Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurship The word entrepreneur has been defined numerous times by the researchers in their research. There is no specific definition of entrepreneurship but there is a generally accepted definition which highlights its significant contribution in the growth of economy. An entrepreneur has the ability to provide momentum for the change, innovation in the traditional strategies and approach. They always try to introduce new ideas in the business market. Entrepreneur is someone who can gauge the financial risk during the business startup and has the ability to capitalize the opportunity of benefit of an enterprise. Besides, various researchers have determined different characteristics of an entrepreneur. For instance, according to Adler, 2002; Aldrich, 1989; Alstete, 2003; Anderson et al, 1992; Anna et al, 1999, an entrepreneur is very creative, skilful, innovative and always keen to explore new ideas and strategies. While, according to others the traits are Hunger for achievement Desire of total control Need of independence and leadership Low traditionalism Risk taker Dominance Moreover, Yonekura in 1984 suggested the characteristics like à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“assertiveness, insistence, forward looking, critical thinking, creative, innovative, broad minded, creative etc. On the other hand, Burk (2002) proposed that optimistic, hard working and desire to achieve are the qualities which are common in entrepreneurs. There are various reasons for people to choose entrepreneurship and start their own business. This area has also been widely researched (Walker, 2004). Result of most of the studies done in this area show that people are motivated by personal and financial reasons like achievement need, independence, and the creation of wealth (Bird, 1989; Birley and Westhead, 1994; Burns, 1996; Hisrich, 1986; Kuratko et al., 1997). Generally, most of the studies suggest that personal internal reasons are more important motivations as compared to financi al reasons in going into entrepreneurship (Gray, 1993). Despite of the above mentioned reasons, his/her present job situation also plays an important part and can influence them for business adoption. According to the Moore and Buttner (1997), unfavorable conditions experienced within the organization, for instance- lack of opportunities and less salary may also push them to start their own business. Furthermore, people who are jobless are also sometimes forced to become entrepreneurs (Still and Guerin, 1991), even though the clarity of the entry of business and its form are not that clear to them at the start (Praag, 2003; Vodopivec, 1998; Walker, 2004; Walker and Brown, 2004; Burke et al., 2002; Burns, 1996; Buttner Moore, 1997; - Process Involved in Business Start up Over the period of time remarkable changes have taken place in the work environment and culture of small and medium enterprises. The failure or the success of any organization depends upon the initial or the kick off stage of the business. The start up of any business activity depends upon the manner or the way in which the business makes arrangements or provisions of funds. The growth of the firm is the most important aspect and has to be done with taking care so that it can grow up to its full potential (Carter et. al., 1996; Carter Anderson, 2001; Carter Cannon, 1988; Chaganti Parasuraman, 1996; Cliff, 1998). Steps involved in the start up of any business activity can be classified as under:- Business Start up:- The theoretical aspects behind the set up or start up of any business are quite different from the practical ones which can be classified as under:- The creation of an idea Theory:- The start-up of the business by the entrepreneur begins with the setting of an idea. Idea is the stepping stone on which the business relies and most of the aspects of the business are considered in the initial idea itself. There are pros and corns to everything and in the business set-up the setting of idea itself leads to the same. Opportunity Recognition The recognition of the right opportunity at the right point in time is what the entrepreneur must be able do. The task of recognizing opportunity for the same is not an easy task at all. There may be loads of opportunities which arise in the market like they may be in the form of a new product or service that has to be offered to the customer (Kotler, 1972; Deshpande, 1983). Research of the market and forming of the Business plan Re search plays a key role before the starting up any activity and business also demands for the same i.e. to conduct research and then formulate a business plan. The key role in set up of any business plan is by carrying out SWOT analysis of the same which means to recognize the Strength Weakness Opportunities and Threats that the organization has to offer (Kotler, 1990; Dyer, 1994). Finance Arrangement Finance is the blood stream of any organization and without the induction of finance no organization can operate. There are loads of sources available for the firms both small and medium sized. Basically for the small and medium enterprises there are mainly two sources of finance internal and external. The basic difference between the internal and external source is the element of interest. Internal sources as the name suggest is from friends family and the saving element and external is all that which leads to the payment of interest basically borrowed funds from sources such as banks, financial institutions etc. (Feldman Bolino, 2000; Fielden et al., 2003; Fitzgerald and Muske, 2002; Leazar, 2002). The small and medium firms in the initial stage cannot afford to bear any additional cost and the interest element also becomes a burden for them and they are mostly concerned with the internal sources of finance i.e. the money invested in the firms by family and friends (Lee Mathews, 1999; Hisrich, 1986). The other aspect of business is the big business houses which have their operation on a large scale and the finance is procured by them from banks and other leading financial institutions. Optimum Use of Resources Resources are the tools and materials which form the crux of any organization and making a proper use of the same plays a very important role in the growth and overall development of the organization. It is vital to make the best possible use of resources as in small towns the scope of business activities is limited as compared to big cities wherein the opportunities as well as the resources required are more and readily available Gimeno, 1997; Gray, 1993; Gatewood et al., 1995; Gundry Welsch, 2001) Resources are portrayed as being distanced from main markets and main centres of business activity, have lower and more dispersed population, a weaker infrastructure, local markets are limited due to lower population. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Despite the apparent difficulties in starting up and running a business to towns, the number of businesses has grownà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. (Anderson, 1997) Problems in Starting Up a Business When starting up a business, the owner is bound to face some problems. There are basic steps and procedures that should be followed by the entrepreneur, while starting a business. But the problem arises when the successful implementation of these steps becomes difficult, due to the problems in the market. Sometimes things do no happen in reality as they were expected and also it may take longer time than expected (Martins et al., 2002; Marschack, 1994; Morrison, 2000; Olson, 1992; Praag, 2003; Rainbird, 1991). Major problems in starting up a business can be classified as: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Goodwill- When a business is new, it lacks good reputation in the market, which is called Goodwill. In business, it is very important to have goodwill. It means that the business has trustworthy image in the market. Sometimes, just because of lack of goodwill, customers donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t trust the company (Reynolds, 2000; Robichaud et al., 2001). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Market Prediction- It is essential for the entrepreneur to have the market predictions. The market trends keep on fluctuating. Thus the entrepreneur has to mould himself according to the market situations. If he does not maintain pace with the market trends it becomes very difficult to be in the race. This is not a very easy job (Robinson, 1994; Shane, 1995; Smith, 2000). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Financial Gap- The existence of a financial gap arises because demand from small firms is greater than the willingness of financial institutions to supply the finance at current market conditions. For finance such as bank loans, these gaps may be termed as credit rationing (Stanworth Stanworth, 1997). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Getting the premises in prime location- Getting a good location to set up the business is a very big issue. The entrepreneur should keep in mind to get the best location. If the location is good and is very close to all the available resources then he can grab the opportunities of using these resource s (Taylor, 1980). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Judging the customer expectations- It is very hard to match the ever changing expectation and demands of the customers. It is very difficult to have an exact idea about the choice of the customers. In this case it becomes very difficult for the new firms to have an idea about the customer expectations (Timmons et al., 1985). Small and Medium Enterprises in the United Kingdom Source: According to the department for business innovation and skills the profile of the small and medium scale enterprises are as follows: As per to the reports there were approximately 4.81 million private sector enterprises in the UK during the starting of 2008, which showed the increase of 104,0003 (2.2 per cent) since the start of 2007. These are the highest levels after the time series began in 1994. Approximately, 23.1 million people were employed by these enterprises with an estimated combined annual turnover of  £3,000 billion. Moreover, 99.9 percent of all enterprises were together accounts by the Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and 59.4 per cent of private sector employment and 50.1 percent of private sector turnover. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Employment in SMEs is estimated at 13.7 million, 287,000 (2.1 per cent) higher than in 2007.Turnover in SMEs is estimated at  £1,500 billion,  £61 billion (4.2 per cent) higher than 2007.More industries experienced growth in the number of enterprises between the start of 2007 and the start of 2008, than experienced a fall. In percentage terms, the biggest increases were in the Mining and Quarrying; Electricity, Gas and Water Supply (19.3 per cent) and Financial Intermediation (10.2 per cent) sectors and the biggest falls in the number of enterprises were in the Manufacturing (- 6.9 per cent) and Other Community, Social and Personal Service Activities (-4.7per cent) sectors (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? As such, out of the 4.81 million private enterprises in the United Kingdom, 99.9 percent are classified as small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) and they are responsible for 59.4 percent of employment in the country as well as 50.1 percent of private sector turnover. The sector also experienced growth from 2007 to 2008 ( ). Most of these private enterprises are (see Table 1) small which is 99.3 percent of the total and they employ about 0 to 49 employees per enterprise while the medium enterprises is 0.6 percent which numbered at 27,000 enterprises and employs from 50 to 249 employees per firm. The large enterprises employs more than 250 employees per firm percent which numbered at 27,000 enterprises and employs from 50 to 249 employees per firm. ISSUES FOR SMEs AND ENTREPRENEURS According to Deakins and Freel (2003), small and medium sized firms do not easily get finance because of the restrictions imposed on them. Notably these SMEs have very less equity and very high risk is associated with them. As a result, most of the sources of finance are not accessible, for instance Stock Exchange. There are mainly two sources that entrepreneurs use that is Internal Source and External Source. Internal source includes personal equity, which are usually remortgages, savings and money taken from friends and family members. While external sources of finance comprises loan taken from bank, venture capitalist, formal investors. Few more sources include leasing, hire purchase and factoring. However, there are various sources of finance available for the SMEs; it is worth discussing the problems faced by the entrepreneurs and constraints of financing. Major issues for SMEs are Financial gap Getting finance from bank Role of security Credit scoring Fin ancial Gap: It mainly occurs when the financial need of SMEs is not fulfilled by financial institutions because of the current market conditions the present situation (credit crunch) further adding problems to the same. It happens when the demand side of the curve exceeds the supply. However, it is still a debatable topic whether this gap is the result of information asymmetries or it is due to the reputational effects. Informational asymmetries are basically considered as the imperfect information provided to the financing institutions, which suggests that there will be insufficient funds available for the firms (Stiglits and Weiss, 1981). According to Shane and Cable (2008), it is likely that few firms specially manufacturing and technology based companies are often reluctant to give full information about their company to avoid the disclosure which can make it easier for others to use it. Moreover, there are few more categories which can face financial gap, such as young en trepreneurs and those who belong to remote areas. Young entrepreneurs mainly lack to provide the security, while for the entrepreneurs in the remote areas, it is quite difficult to get access with the banks (OCED, 2008) Getting finance from bank: However, banks are easily accessible; it is less likely that entrepreneurs get favourable offers from them. Short-term financing given by banks only looks theoretically attractive. Besides, banks also face issue in assessing the proposition from the borrower, which generally arises when both provider and borrower share different set of information. For banks, two main issues are: Adverse Selection Moral Hazard Adverse Selection: This arises when a bank is unable to assess a proposition correctly. For instance, when it refuses to provide for a proposition which could have been successful or when it accepts the position which results as failure. Moral Hazard: It causes more serious problem for banks and ultimately causes problems for the entrepreneurs having less/no security to offer. It can occur when a firm misuses the security-free financing from the banks, as there is no guarantee taken from the firm to repay the loan. This is a monitoring problem for banks and for comparatively smaller amount of loans; it is not economic to observe them closely. However, this creates problem for the entrepreneurs who lack sufficient equity and security. Role of security: This has now been widely used to overcome the shortcomings like moral hazard and adverse selection. However, bank officers can also choose to have frequent monitoring of the information to reduce the adverse selection, a cost minimisation approach (role of security) seems to be a better option. Furthermore, collateral seems to be a better option because it ensures commitment from the borrower and allows bank to make safer deal. It also enhances the chances of loss recovery in case of adverse selection. Credit Scoring:- Nowadays, thi s computerized technique has been widely used by banks. Credit scoring is based on considering various variables of the borrower such as, occupation, post code of home address, previous payment records and other commitments Taking all the above mentioned things into consideration, a computerized acceptance or rejection report is generated. Credit scoring has brought a remarkable reduction in decision making for the bank managers. In most of the leading banks of UK like NatWest, Barclays, Lloyds/TSB, Bank of Scotland, use different systems to measure credit of the loan applicant. Albeit, few above mentioned banks have adopted this technique completely, there are some banks still relying and using both methods (Credit scoring and decision making) However, credit scoring has proved to be a boon for the banks, it has some demerits as well. It only judges the applications on the basis of past records. This technique may reject the proposal which sounds beneficial and successful but donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t have good credit history and past records.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Professionals in an IT Organization Free Essays

The twentieth century has heightened the age of information technology (IT). Many professions were created to cater to the need to develop more technologies that will carry free exchange of information among users and consumers. Institutions and organizations also paralleled the development by organizing their own IT departments composed of IT professionals. We will write a custom essay sample on Professionals in an IT Organization or any similar topic only for you Order Now Basically, this department takes care of the information and technological needs of the company that involves programming and computers. Some of the professions and their job descriptions are outlined below. Information Systems Managers. Because of the development of newer technologies, competitive Information Systems Manager has become more essentials in planning for the future of the organization especially that almost all of the processes now involve computer programming, Internet support and security operations. Managers are in-charge of the overall planning and development of the organizations’ needed programs, networks or softwares that should be incorporated in the systems. They also oversee all resources and systems within the organization and works with their subordinates in the implementation of the plans and designs. Typically, those graduates of master’s degree of both information and business management qualify for the job. Computer Programmers. One of the most valuable assets of IT organizations is the programmers. They have the wits to design programs and systems that will facilitate the information and data processes of the organization. After the planning, they hold the mind, the codes and access and security of the entire organization. They engineer every program and instruct computers of their functions. They are in-charge of the development, test and re-test of the programs in the companies’ systems. Computer Scientists and Database Administrators. If programmers do the actual development of programs, the computer scientists conceptualize and theorize the implications of the programs in the companies’ systems. They take care of the researches of possible errors of the programs in the future and other developments that may occur in the business. They also develop systems that ensure computer-user efficiency. On the other hand, Database Administrators, as the title connotes, are in-charge of gathering all the data needed for a program to function. It is their duty to guarantee that communication systems like Wide Area Network (WAN) and Local Area Network (LAN) are functioning for the benefit of the company. They are also in-charge of the website content of the company, if there is one, and do every necessary research it entails. Computer Software Engineers. Unlike the computer programmers, software engineers’ jobs are more specific to analyzing user needs and designing, constructing, testing, and maintaining computer applications software or systems. They are also geared toward troubleshooting technical glitches in the programs that need restoration. The above professions may already be sufficient for a company to employ; however, these people also need a team under them; that is why some companies consider employing technical assistants and database specialists. Technical assistants usually are in-charge of the hardware functions of the company. They ensure that all the hardwares being used are functioning efficiently and regularly updated according to the needs of the programs and softwares. They also assist in the installation of the programs and other technicalities like cables for LAN and WAN. Data Specialists, on the other hand, assist in the encoding of specific data needed in the completion of programs or raw data that test the functionality of softwares. How to cite Professionals in an IT Organization, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Rizals Life, Works and Writings Chapter 6 free essay sample

On January 28, 1890, Rizal left Paris for Brussels, capital of Belgium. Two reasons impelled Rizal to leave Paris, namely; (1) the cost of living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition and (2) the gay social life of the city hampered his literary works, especially the writing of his second novel El Filibusterismo. His friends, including M. H. del Pilar and Valentin Ventura, were of the belief that he left because he was running away from the girl just as he left London. When he told them that the reason for his leaving Paris was economic because his money was dwindling, Ventura generously invited him in Paris without paying rent. He could not accept Ventura’s invitation, for he had a high sense of dignity and would not accept charity from any man. Rizal was accompanied by Jose Albert when he moved to Brussels. They lived in a modest boarding house on 38 Rue Philippe Champagne. We will write a custom essay sample on Rizals Life, Works and Writings Chapter 6 or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Later Albert left the city, and was replaced by Jose Alejandro, an engineering student. Rizal was busy writing his second novel which was a continuation of the Noli. Aside from writing its chapters, he wrote articles for La Solidaridad and letters to his family and friends. Life in Brussels Articles Published in La Solidaridad. , During his sojourn in Brussels, Rizal wrote this articles in defense of his oppressed people and to point out the evils of Spanish rule in the Philippines. New Orthography of Tagalog Language In spite of his European education and his knowledge of foreign languages, Rizal loved his own native language. He was the first to advocate the Filipinization of its orthography. For instance, the Tagalog letters k and w should be used instead of the spanish c and o. Thus the Hispanized Tagalog word salacot should be written salakot and the Hispanized Tagalog term arao be changed into araw. As early as in September 1886, when he was in Leipzig, Rizal adopted the Filipinized Tagalog orthography in his tagalog translations of Schiller’s Wilhelm Tell and Andersen’s Fairy Tales and again he used in his first novel Noli Me Tangere ( Berlin, 1887). Rizal Criticizes Madrid Filipinos for Gambling. Rizal received news from Juan Luna and Valentin Ventura that the Filipinos in Spain were destroying the good name of their nation by gambling too much. Bad news from House. Letters from home which Rizal received in Brussels worried him. The Calamba Agrarian trouble was getting worse. The Dominican order filed a suit in court to disposes the Rizal family of their lands in Calamba. Presentiment of Death. In his moment of despair Rizal had bad dreams during the nights in Brussels when he was restless because he was always thinking of his unhappy family in Calamba. Preparation to Go Home. In the face of the sufferings which afflicted his family, Rizal planned to go home. All his friends, including Blumenritt, Jose Ma. Basa, and Ponce, were horified by Rizal’s plan to return to the Philippines. They warned him of the danger that waited him at home. In another letter to Ponce, written at Brussels, July 29, 1890, Rizal announced that he was leaving Brussels at the beginning of the following month and would arrive in Madrid about the 3rd or 4th (August). â€Å"To My Muse† (1890). It was against a background of mental anguish on Brussels, during those sad days when he was worried by family disasters, that he wrote his pathetic poem, â€Å" A Mi†¦Ã¢â‚¬  ( To My Muse). This Poem lacks the exquisites of â€Å" To the Flowers of Heidelberg† and less polished than â€Å" To the Filipino Youth. Romance with Petite Jacoby. Two things brought some measure of cheer to the despondent Rizal, as he was preparing for his trip to Madrid. Like other women, Segunda Katigbak, Orang Valenzuela and others. Suzanne fell in love with Rizal. She cried when he left toward the end of July, 1890 for Madrid, stopping for a few days in Paris. Misfortunes in Madrid Early in August, 1890, Rizal arrived in Madrid. He tried all legal means to seek justice for his family and the Calamba tenants, but to no avail. He almost fought two duels one with Antonio Luna and the other with Wenceslao E. Retana. On top of his misfortunes, Leonor Rivera married a British engineer. The infidelity of the girl with whom he was engaged for eleven years, broke his heart. Failure to Get Justice for Family. Upon arrival to Madrid, Rizal immediately sought the help of the Filipino colony, the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina, and the Liberal Spanish newspapers in securing the justice for the oppressed Calamba tenants, including his family, together with MH. del Pilar and Dr. Dominador Gomez. Rizal’s Eulogy to Panganiban. Barely had Rizal settled down in Madrid, when he experienced another disappointment. This was the doleful news that his friend, Jose Ma. Panganiban, his talented co-worker in the propaganda movement, died in Barcelona on August 19, 1890, after a lingering illness. He deeply mourned the passing of this Bicol hero. Aborted Duel With Antonio Luna. Towards the end of August, 1890, Rizal attended a social reunion of the Filipinos in Madrid. As a customary in these weekly reunions of the paisanos, wine was served. Luna became drunk. At that time, Luna was bitter because of his frustrated romance with Nellie Boustead. Rizal heared him. His high sense of chivalry could not tolerant any slur against the honor of any women because of that Rizal challenged him. The Filipinos were shocked by the incident. After the duel when Luna realized that he had fool of himself he apologized Rizal. And Rizal accept it. Infidelity of Leonor Rivera. In the autumn of 1890 Rizal was feeling bitter at so many disappointments he encountered in Madrid. One night he and some friends attended a play at Teatro Apolo, and there he lost his watch chain with a locket containing the picture of Leonor Rivera, his beloved sweetheart. ] Rizal-Del Pilar Rivalry. Toward the closing days of 1890 there arose an unfortunate rivalry between Rizal and M. H. del Pilar for supremacy. Rizal, the most talented Filipino of his time, was until then the undisputed leader of the Filipinos in Europe. On the other hand, Del Pilar, the fearless lawyer-journalist, was gaining prestige in Madrid for his vigorous editorials in La Solidaridad, which he came to own. Rizal Abdicates His leadership. The election took place during the first week of February, 1891. The Filipinos were divided into two hostile camps- the Rizalistas and the Pilaristas. Rizal won but the votes cast for him did not reached the required two-thirds. Adios, Madrid. Rizal wrote a brief note thinking his compatriots for electing him as Responsible. Sadly he packed up his bags, paid his bills and boarded a train leaving for Biarritz. As his train pulled out of the railway station, he gazed through its window at the city of Madrid, where he was happy during his first sojourn(1882-85) but unhappy on his second visit (1890-91). It was the last time he saw Madrid. His agonizing heart bade goodbye to the metropolis, of which he had written years ago.